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Murteza Bedir’s PhD thesis The Early Development of Hanafi Usul al-Fiqh is an interesting study of the development of usul al-fiqh in the Hanafi school. It describes a process of slowly eliminating the freedom of intellect of the early Hanafi school as succeeding generations tried to reform the school to fit more with Shafi`i style orthodoxy. The earliest studied scholar is the Persian Hanafi legal theorist al-Jassas, whose writings provide the foundations for Hanafi legal theory, perhaps in large part due to his preservation of the opinions of earlier legal theorists like Isa ibn Aban.
The above is a download link to the study. I am placing it on my site since currently it is available for free on the rent-seeking site Scribd, which makes it difficult to download it. I am guessing Dr. Bedir couldn’t find a better way of offering it on the internet.
It is easy to think that the Abbasid caliphate was an “Arab” empire. The emperors themselves were proud to trace their lineage back to Abbas, uncle of Prophet Muhammad. Yet within 150 years of its founding, Arab genes made up 2% of the genetic makeup of the emperors, and this remained so until the very end.
The first significant emperor with Indo-European genes was the half-Persian al-Ma’mun, who had his capital at the Persian city of Merv in Central Asia for ten years before moving to Baghdad. During his reign a trend started for preferring Greek and Persian concubines for producing the next generation of emperors, so that the amount of Arab genes declined to insignificant amounts. Al-Muqtadir, who reigned from 908 – 929 CE was nearly 98% Indo-European.
It can be seen from the table below that the Abbasid caliphate was an Arab empire at its beginning, transformed into an Indo-European empire (with four successive emperors having 97%+ Indo-European genes!) during its Golden Age, then started to increasingly mix with Turkic genes during its decline.
|750 – 754||Al-Saffah||Muhammad (Arab)||Raita (Arab)||100% Arab||0%|
|754 – 775||Al-Mansur||Muhammad b. Ali (Arab)||Sallamah (Berber slave)||50% Arab, 50% Berber||0%|
|775 – 785||Al-Mahdi||Al-Mansur||Arwi (Yemeni Arab)||75% Arab, 25% Berber||0%|
|786 – 809||Harun al-Rashid||Al-Mahdi||Al-Khayzuran (Arab slave)||87.5% Arab, 12.5 Berber||0%|
|813 – 833||Al-Ma’mun||Harun al-Rashid||Marajil (Persian slave)||50% Persian, 43.75% Arab, 6.25% Berber||50%|
|833 – 842||Al-Mu’tasim||Harun al-Rashid||Marida (Turkic slave)||50% Turkic, 25% Persian, 21.875% Arab, 3.125 Berber||25%|
|842 – 847||Al-Wathiq||Al-Mu’tasim||Qaratis (Byzantine Greek slave)||50% Greek, 12.5% Persian, 10.9375% Arab, 1.5625% Berber||62.5%|
|847 – 861||Al-Mutawakkil||Al-Mu’tasim||Shuja (Persian slave)||56.25% Persian, 25% Greek, 5.46875% Arab, 0.78125% Berber||81.25%|
|870 – 892||Al-Mu’tamid||Al-Mutawakkil||Fityan (Persian slave)||78.125% Persian, 12.5 Greek, 2.734375% Arab, 0.390625% Berber||90.625%|
|892 – 902||Al-Mu’tadid||al-Muwaffaq, son of Al-Mutawakkil and Umm Ishaq, a Greek slave. Race: 56.25% Greek, 39.0625% Persian, 1.3671875% Arab, 0.1953125% Berber)||Dirar (Greek slave)||78.125 Greek, 19.53125% Persian, 0.68359375% Arab, 0.09765625% Berber||97.655%|
|902-908||Al-Muktafi||Al-Mu’tadid||Jijak (Greek slave)||89% Greek, 9.7% Persian, 0.34% Arab, 0.04% Berber||98%|
|908 – 929||Al-Muqtadir||Al-Mu’tadid||Shaghab (Greek slave)||94.5% Greek, 4.88% Persian, 0.17% Arab, 0.02% Berber||98%|
|946 – 974||Al-Muti||Al-Muqtadir||Slavic slave||50% Slavic, 47.26% Greek, 2.44% Persian, 0.08% Arab, 0.01% Berber||98%|
|974 – 991||Al-Ta’i||Al-Muti’||Unknown||50% Unknown, 25% Slavic, 23.6% Greek, 1.22% Persian||49.82%|
|991 – 1031||Al-Qadir||Al-Muttaqi, son of al-Muqtadir. Race: 50% Unknown, 47.2% Greek, 2.44% Persian, 0.08% Arab||Slave of uknown origin||75% Unknown, 23.6% Greek, 1.2% Persian (Al-Qadir is described as being “white” in history books, therefore it is likely that his mother was Greek or Persian)||24.8%|
|1031 – 1075||Al-Qa’im||Al-Qadir||Badr al-Daji (Armenian slave)||50% Armenian, 37.5% Unknown, 11.8% Greek, 0.6% Persian||62.4%|
|1075 – 1094||Al-Muqtadi||Al-Qa’im||Urjuman (Armenian slave)||75% Armenian, 18.75% Unknown, 5.9% Greek||80.9%|
|1094 – 1118||Al-Mustazhir||Al-Muqtadi||Altun Khatun (Turkic woman, prob. Seljuk princess)||50% Turkic, 37.5 Armenian, 9% Unknown, 2.95% Greek||40.45%|
|1118 – 1135||Al-Mustarshid||Al-Mustazhir||Kumush Khatun (Turkic woman, probably Seljuk princess)||75% Turkic, 18.75% Armenian, 4.8% Unknown, 1.47% Greek||20.22%|
|1136 – 1159||Al-Muqtafi||Al-Mustazhir||Fatima Khatun (Turkic woman, probably Seljuk princess)||87.5% Turkic, 9.375% Armenian, 2.34% Unknown, 0.73% Greek||10.1%|
|1160 – 1170||Al-Mustanjid||Al-Muqtafi||Tawus (“Thawus”) al-Karaji, slave (Most likely Persian, al-Karaji refers to the city of Karaj in Iran in Medieval last names)||50.019% Persian, 43.75% Turkic, 4.68% Armenian, 1.1% Unknown, 0.3% Greek||55%|
|1170 – 1180||Al-Mustadi||Al-Mustanjid||Ghaddah (Armenian slave)||52.3% Armenian, 25% Persian, 21.8% Turkic||77.3%|
|1180 – 1225||Al-Nasir||Al-Mustadi||Zumurrud (Turkic slave)||60.9% Turkic, 26.1% Armenian, 12.5% Persian||38.6%|
|1226 – 1242||Al-Mustansir||Az-Zahir, son of al-Nasir and unknown mother. Race: 50.14% Unknown, 30.4% Turkic, 13.08% Armenian, 6.25% Persian)||Turk Khatun (Turkic slave)||65.2% Turkic, 25% Unknown, 6.5% Armenian, 3.1% Persian||9.6%|
|1242 – 1258||Al-Mustasim||Al-Mustansir||Concubine of unknown origin||62.5% Unknown, 32.6% Turkic, 3.2% Armenian, 1.5% Persian||4.7%|
Sources: Wikipedia, The Slave Girls of Baghdad by F. Matthew Caswell, Islam in History by Bernard Lewis, Islamic Culture, Volume 2 (1928), various Arabic-language sources.
The table omits emperors who ruled for very short periods of time and/or who did not contribute to the genes of succeeding emperors.
* The values in this column are capped to 98%: Due to the fact that the Y-chromosome can only be inherited from one’s male relatives, and due to the fact that it makes up 2% of the genome, the Y-chromosome of the emperors would have been necessarily Arab, and therefore their percentage “Arab-ness” couldn’t have fallen below 2%, so that the most Indo-European that an Abbasid emperor could be would have been 98% realistically.
It has been just a little over a year that Jordan Peterson gained fame from his opposition to a Canadian compelled-speech law (Bill C-16). One of the topics he keeps coming back to is the evil done in the Soviet Union (to the chagrin of so many neo-Marxist leftists), and he often recommends that people read Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s The Gulag Archipelago. Google Trends shows that just as Peterson’s fame took off in November 2016, interest in The Gulag Archipelago increased by a factor of around 3.5 and has remained high since.
And in case you thought this may be accidental, Google Trends suggests “Jordan Peterson” as one of the related topics and queries for The Gulag Archipelago, which shows that there is a high correlation between searches for The Gulag Archipelago and searches for Peterson: